Christchurch water and waste networks suffered extensive damage as a result of the 22 February 2011 earthquake. The close proximity and shallow depth of this event resulted in higher intensity shaking in Christchurch with respect to the Darfield event in September 2010 [1]. The size of the fault also determines the size of the Earthquake because the earthquake is a result of the seismic waves moving through the fault. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. We have conducted a survey of damage to 160 buildings from the M6.2 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake to estimate earthquake intensities produced by this very significant earthquake. The fault rupture started with a small amount of slip between the two sides of the fault at about 6 km depth. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. 6.2 February 22, 2011 Christchurch earthquake had an epicentre less than 10 km from the Christchurch CBD between Lyttelton and the South Eastern edge of the city. This was followed by a fatal 6.3 earthquake centred under the city of Christchurch on February 22, 2011. The size of the fault also determines the size of the Earthquake because the earthquake is a result of the seismic waves moving through the fault. Movement of land on either side of the fault plane was mixture of vertical motion and sideways slip (Fig. On 22 February 2011, Christchurch City experienced a destructive magnitude (Mw) 6.2 aftershock following the main event of magnitude (Mw) 7.1 on the 4 September 2010. Earthquake Maps – Observations from the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Outside of New Zealand, the earthquake became known as the "Christchurch Earthquake", and it resulted in the deaths of 185 people and injuries of several thousand. February, 2011, Christchurch City experienced a direct hit from a destructive magnitude (Mw) 6.2 aftershock following the main event of magnitude 7.1 on the 4 The second and more devastating earthquake occurred the following year on February 22, 2011, within the Christchurch City Centre at a depth of just 5 kilometres and a magnitude of 6.3. Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. Christchurch Earthquake 2011. The M7.1 earthquake and associated aftershocks have caused extensive impacts on the local built, economic, social, and natural environments. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. Measuring 6.3 on the Richter Scale and, at 4.99 km deep, the earthquake was very shallow. The effectiveness of the method is tested comparing prediction with the effects observed in the city of Christchurch during the 22nd February 2011 earthquake. There is still additional work to do to locate these aftershocks precisely, at which time they may provide additional detail on the fault rupture. 1). For GPS data: LINZ, especially Josh Thomas and Dave Collett; GeoNet; Geosystems/Trimble New Zealand; Global Survey; Andersen & Associates, especially Brent George; Christchurch City Council; Otago University. An extensive survey was conducted by the Christchurch City Council and the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority following … The earthquake that occurred on 5 June 1869 had an intensity of MM 7 in Christchurch City centre and of MM 5 in the surrounding boroughs, and caused damage to chimneys, government buildings, churches and homes [Christchurch City Libraries, However, there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during the strong shaking. The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The second and more devastating earthquake occurred the following year on February 22, 2011, within the Christchurch City Centre at a depth of just 5 kilometres and a magnitude of 6.3. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. Mapping liquefaction vulnerability for Christchurch City Posted on: November 5, 2020 at 3:26 PM Following the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010-2011 Tonkin + Taylor performed a large amount of geotechnical analysis for Christchurch City Council (CCC) and Environment Canterbury (ECan) to better understand possible liquefaction-induced damage under future earthquake … Christchurch water and waste networks suffered extensive damage as a result of the 22 February 2011 earthquake. This raised part of the Port Hills and part of southern Christchurch. The two Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 illustrate this: the 7.1 magnitude earthquake of 4 September was centred near Darfield, about 40km west of Christchurch and about 11km deep. There was extensive damage as a result of the MM9 shaking, particularly to buildings and infrastructure, but fortunately there were no deaths. We expect that details of the fault location and slip distribution will be updated in the future, as we incorporate more data and use more sophisticated data analysis techniques. Compare Maps – Place any two of these maps side-by-side to use the slider to compare them. Gregory Cole, Nawawi Chouw, Rajesh Dhakal, Building and bridge pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.334-341, 44, 4, (334-341), (2011). AcknowledgementsFor discussions and sharing of early results: Pierre Briole, ENS, France; Marcello de Michele, BRGM, France; Eric Fielding, JPL, USA; SARmap group, Switzerland; INGV, Italy; GSI, Japan; Shaun Levick, Caroline Holden, Bill Fry, Stephen Bannister, Martin Reyners, all at GNS. This article outlines some findings from an inquiry undertaken in the aftermath of 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, in which positive critique was used to examine the practice accounts of twelve school social workers alongside characteristics of recovery policies. The land has gone up as much as 40 centimetres around the western side of the Avon-Heathcote estuary. Liquefaction Liquefaction is a well known natural process in Christchurch following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes. The Port Hills have gone up by varying amounts, from about 5 centimetres under Lyttelton Harbour to a maximum of about 25 centimetres at the base of the hills near the Heathcote valley. Central, northern and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but generally by less than 5 centimetres. Rockfall fatality risk models combining hazard, exposure and vulnerability data were 20 decision -making practic es in Christchurch, New Zealand and the surrounding region in response to mass movement (e.g., rockfall, cliff collapses) and ground surface fault rupture hazards incurred during the 2010- 2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) . Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. For CSK satellite radar data: e-GEOS, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano. 36,000 water and wastewater service requests were received and addressed by Christchurch City Council (CCC), which owns and manages the city’s water and wastewater networks, in 5 months following the earthquake. Radar images taken from satellites before and after the earthquake were analysed. This earthquake struck at lunchtime on a working day, causing catastrophic damage to the city, and resulting in 185 deaths. Because the fault doesn’t break the surface, the land overlying the top of the fault has been slightly folded, with the south side warped upward and the north side down (see Fig. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. The on-going aftershocks have also caused a disrupted environment in which to recover. The residents began the recovery process, plagued by frequent aftershocks. Impacts of the Emergency Mass Evacuation of the Elderly From Residential Care Facilities After the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. On February 22, 2011, residents of the then-second-largest city in New Zealand – Christchurch, located on the South Island's Canterbury Plains – were hit hard by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. This type of fault motion is called reverse faulting. 185 people from more than 20 countries died in the earthquake. The block of land south of the fault slid up the fault surface by as much as 2.5 metres on the section of fault near the Avon-Heathcote estuary. Christchurch building known to be vulnerable Peter Smith in Christchurch February 25 2011 The Canterbury Television building, where up to 120 people … Mark Mitchell—New Zealand Herald/AP This article was most recently revised and updated by Lorraine Murray, Associate Editor. The strong motion stations around the CBD region and extensive … Figure 1: This Google map image shows the fault plane (rectangular area) across the southern part of Christchurch and northern Port Hills. The suburbs of Heathcote and Redcliffs lie above the fault, resulting in heavy damage and extensive rockfalls. A case study of an earthquake in a HIC.. What caused the Christchurch earthquake? The images can be combined to show the total amount of shift of the ground surface, both vertically and horizontally, caused by the earthquake (see Fig. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. As a direct result of the fault slip, the Bexley, Aranui, Wainoni, Avondale and New Brighton areas have gone down, mostly by less than 15 centimetres. The top of the fault lies at a depth of about a kilometre beneath the surface, and the rupture extends down along the fault plane for about seven kilometres. Relative to the fault, the land north of the fault shifted eastward while the land to the south of the fault shifted westward. The government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. Vulnerability Map – A map showing how liquefaction vulnerability varies across Christchurch. A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. Abstract. Over the next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest, with the amount of slip increasing with time. While extensive triggering of liquefaction was observed in the September 2010, February 2011, and June 2011 earthquakes, this triggering had little-to-no consequence on the built environment in some areas where state-of-the-practice liquefaction procedures suggested severe ground failure and damaging effects should have been anticipated. a significant contribution to earthquake-related losses. But other damage can be more complex and not as easy to see, such as Increased Flooding Vulnerability (IFV) and Increased Liquefaction Vulnerability (ILV). earthquake; Christchurch, New Zealand, 2011 Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. Understanding liquefaction vulnerability helps guide decisions about future land use and designing infrastructure and homes to … If the student volunteer army is to engage in ongoing strong collective protest, they may yet change the direction of my community’s socioeconomic development. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Movement was modelled using the ground shaking recorded during the earthquake by “strong-motion” seismometers. 3). 2011). On 22 February 2011, an earthquake rocked Christchurch on New Zealand’s South Island, killing 185 people and causing widespread damage. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury Region of New Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010. Two more earthquakes measuring magnitude 6.4 and 6 respectively were centred close to the city in June Severe damage was inflicted on the building stock, particularly within the central business district (CBD) of Christchurch. Position data from GPS stations (Fig. The coloured image shows an “interference pattern” derived from X-band radar images taken on 19 and 23 February 2011 by the Italian Cosmo-SkyMed satellite. Home The deeper parts of the fault, and the westernmost 5 to 6 kilometres of the fault slipped predominantly horizontally by a few tens of centimetres. Most of these casualties occurred as a result of the collapse of two large office buildings, with further deaths resulting from falling bricks and masonry, and rockfalls in city suburbs. A magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck the city of Christchurch at 12:51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. Intensity is the human scale of earthquake shaking based on observations and building damage. Each colour cycle represents 1.5 centimetres of ground displacement, so the total displacement between the western edge of the image and central Christchurch is about 25 centimetres. Figure 3: Image indicating ground displacement made by combining satellite radar images taken before and after the earthquake. The review is of the response from the date of the earthquake until 30 April 2011. The report looks at the architectural characteristics and seismic vulnerability of … vulnerability, risk On September 4, 2010 a non-fatal 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealand. An aftershock sequence was initiated, which included a catastrophic M w 6.3 earthquake on 22 February 2011 beneath the city of Christchurch, killing 185 people. The 22 Feb 2011 Christchurch Mw6.2 earthquake is an example that may well have been extreme but provides rationale for re-evaluating other examples of liquefaction worldwide and consideration of ground performance in relation to wider hydrogeological conditions and setting. The direction of movement—up and towards the northwest—focussed the energy of the earthquake towards Christchurch and helps explain the severe damage in the city. The main part of the fault thus lies beneath the northern edge of the Port Hills. 1) was about 14 kilometres long, and extends east-northeast from Cashmere to the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. This is largely due to the earthquake taking place in the early hours of the morning when residents were in bed, and due to the distance of the earthquake from major urban areas. The AIR model incorporates detailed soil and groundwater The red, green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault slip model. / Our Science The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 … Then, more than five months after the mainshock, on 22 February 2011, a M6.3 aftershock occurred 5 km south-east of Christchurch at a depth of only 5 km. Fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the ground surface. Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on … The earthquake … In the decade since, structural engineer Peter McBean FIEAust CPEng has been working to ensure a … Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. The February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake, which occurred on a previously unknown fault, revealed silty soils vulnerable to widespread liquefaction and land damage, severely impacting the city’s central business district. Disaster Medicine … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. An overview of the impacts of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Figure 2: Diagram showing the amount and direction of slip of the rock between the two sides of the fault. / Hidden fault. The greatest movement was upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. the vulnerability of hospitals and provide a resilience metric for hospitals that can be adapted. 2). The general region of fault slip is outlined by the aftershocks of the 22 February earthquake. This article describes our understanding of the Christchurch earthquake fault as at the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the earthquake. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This paper will outline the nature of the Canterbury earthquakes and provide an introduction to the ongoing effects the earthquakes have had on these local environments to help frame the growing body of research coming out of the Canterbury earthquakes. The rock on the south side of the fault has moved up and westward by as much as 2.5 metres relative to the rock on the north side of the fault. For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. Government, 2011], but only three earthquakes have resulted in reported damage to buildings. Gregory Cole, Nawawi Chouw, Rajesh Dhakal, Building and bridge pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.334-341, 44, 4, (334-341), (2011). ... (New Zealand) shows the shaking intensity of the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. As a result of the 2010/2011 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes, Reinforced Concrete Frame with Masonry Infill (RCFMI) buildings experienced a level of damage that was different to that observed for other construction systems. The unprecedented documentation available after this earthquake enables to validate different components of the model and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors. 1) before and after the earthquake was analysed, using measurements from both existing continuous GPS stations and temporary stations installed after the earthquake. 2020 Edition of the New Zealand Critical Lifelines Infrastructure National Vulnerability Assessment ... Corrective Action Plan following the Review of the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Response to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake (.pdf 172kb) Get the latest information about our emergency status from your social media channels. Other Maps – General information about ground conditions across Christchurch. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. 2). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. Published by Elsevier Ltd. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. The white line is the contour where there was no change in height. The Canterbury earthquake sequence taught us that some land damage is visible, such as cracking and undulation (where the land has moved in an up-and-down movement resulting in a wavy shape). / Recent Events The fault is not a vertical cut through the earth, but rather it dips towards the south at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal. The red star shows the location where the fault rupture started. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. Christchurch City lies 40 km east of Darfield, and was home to a population of approximately 370,000 at the time of the earthquake. These documents relate to the independent review initiated by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management after the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Christchurch Earthquake Case Study. 36,000 water and wastewater service requests were received and addressed by Christchurch City Council (CCC), which owns and manages the city’s water and wastewater networks, in 5 months following the earthquake. The contour lines indicate the amount (in mm) the land has risen (blue contours) or subsided (red contours) due to the slip on the fault. To compare them significant contribution to earthquake-related losses and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but fortunately were. 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